1. İNGİLİZCE’DE ZAMANLAR

         İngilizce dilbilgisinde zamanlar Past, Present ve Future olmak üzere üçe ayrılır. Bu üç zaman, tür olarak Simple, Progressive ya da Perfect bir zamandır. Buna göre İngilizce’de zamanları şöyle bir tabloda gösterebiliriz:

SIMPLE PROGRESSIVE PERFECT

PAST

1.Past Simple 4.Past  Progressive 7.Past Perfect

PRESENT

2.Present Simple 5.Present Progressive 8.Present Perfect

FUTURE

3.Future Simple 6.Future Progressive 9.Future Perfect
 10. Past Perfect Progressive
 11. Present Perfect Progressive

            Progressive zamanların hepsinde fillerin sonuna  –ing takısı getirilir. Perfect zamanlarda ise fiil Past Participle (V3) haldedir. Şimdi bu zamanların her biriyle ilgili kısa açıklamalar ve örnek cümleler görelim.

SAMPLE SENTENCES

  1. PAST SIMPLE TENSE

We use this tense for actions that happened in a definite point in the past.

E.g.   1. Mehmet II conquered Istanbul in 1453.

  1. Last year, we celebrated the 80th anniversary of our Republic with parades and fireworks.

 2. PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

We use Present Simple Tense for things that are true in general, or for things that happen sometimes or all the time. Sometimes this tense can have a future meaning when events are on a definite schedule or timetable.

E.g.1. Students read a lot of English books in their free time.

  1. The earth rotates from west to east.
  2. The NATO summit starts in two weeks.

 3. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE (WILL-GOING TO)

“WILL” is used to express spontaneous decisions for the future.

“GOING TO” is used for planned actions.

E.g.    1.-Wait here. I’ll give you my e-mail address.

2. Are you going to find good examples for each of these tenses? 

 4. PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

We use it for actions that happened in the past while another action was taking place.

E.g.  1.What were you doing at 11.30 yesterday?

2. I woke up early yesterday. It was a beautiful morning and the sun was shining.

 5. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

We use Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense for the actions that happen during the time of the speech. It is also sometimes used for definite actions that are going to happen in the future.

E.g. 1. You are studying these examples now.

2. The municipality is starting the new project in Istanbul this Monday.

  1. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE

We use it to express an activity that will be in progress at a specific time in the future.

E.g.   1.This time tomorrow he ‘ll be flying to New York.

2. What will you be doing in your vacation by the time you are at home?

  1. PAST PERFECT TENSE

We use this tense for actions that happened before another action in the past.

E.g.   1.Sergen had played in Istanbulspor, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray before he started to play in Beşiktaş again.

2. Russians had already sent a manned spacecraft before Americans landed on the moon.

  1. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

We use it for actions that started in the past with results now. It can be considered as past + present.

E.g. 1. Some students have broken the antenna of the teacher’s radio.(It is still broken now.)

2. Turkey hasn’t joined the European Union yet. (The admission process started in the past, and it still continues.)

  1. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

We use it to express an action that will be finished before a definite time in the future.

E.g.   1. You will have completed this worksheet in a few minutes.

2. Turkey hopefully will have become a member of the European Union by 2030.

  1. PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

We use this tense for past actions that were taking place up to a definite time in the past.

E.g.   1. He couldn’t show his notebook to the teacher because he had been hanging around all the weekend.

2. I was tired yesterday. I had been checking the exam papers all the morning.

  1. PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

We use this tense for actions that started in the past and still continue at the time of speech.

E.g.  1. He has been taking English classes for 1,5 years in this school now.

  1. Turkish troops have been defending the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus since 1974.